Category Archives: N

NIR spectroscopy

NIR spectroscopy (also near infrared spectroscopy or NIRS) is a physical analysis technique based on spectroscopy in the short-wave infrared light range. It is primarily equivalent to infrared spectroscopy used in the mid- and far-infrared range (MIR and FIR), but allows the use of other materials and radiation sources and provides easier access and other forms of analysis.

Near infrared or near infrared (NIR) is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum that follows the longer wavelength direction of visible light (VIS) in the range of approximately 780 to 2,500 nm.


Data that obscures or corrupts signal, as that term is used in the expression signal-to-noise ratio. Although noise is generally unwanted and signal is wanted, there are exceptions. In some circumstances, for example, dithering, which produces noise, is deliberately employed to counteract the aliasing that results when certain frequencies in a sound or image interact with the sampling frequencies applied by digital-capture systems. While noise is often thought of as a random phenomenon, it may be either random or systematic (patterned).


The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with the preservation and documentation of government and historical records. It is also tasked with increasing public access to those documents which make up the National Archive. NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, and federal regulations.

For internal use only, involving their own holdings or project with other partner organizations, NARA has developed Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access which can be viewed on the NARA website.

Newspaper format (paper formats)

A newspaper format describes the standardized dimensions of a newspaper that has not been opened, specified in width by height (in short: W × H). The size refers to the size of the paper side. The print area, however, can vary depending on the newspaper. The width of the columns, too, can vary. Common formats are e.g. B. 45 mm (one column), 90-95 mm (two columns) or 185 mm (four columns).

Newspaper formats vary considerably around the world, not only from country to country but also within a country. In Germany alone there were around 60 different paper formats for newspaper printing in the 1970s. DIN 16604, which was laid down in 1973, was intended to “facilitate cooperation between the advertising industry and newspaper publishers and printing companies when placing advertisements and lead to a uniform usage of language with regard to dimensions.”

In some countries, certain formats are also associated with certain types of newspapers. In Great Britain, for example, a distinction is made between “tabloid” and “broadsheet”, which is also to be assessed as a reference to the quality of the newspaper content, since the tabloid press prefers the tabloid format.

In Germany, on the other hand, the most common formats differ according to their regional origin, such as the Berlin format (315 x 470 mm), the Rhenish format (350 × 510 mm) and the Nordic format (400 × 570 mm).

Due to the high format variability and the different nature of the templates, the digitization of newspapers poses great challenges for scanning systems.

Newspapers can be available as individual editions, but depending on the frequency of publication they are often bound in thick monthly, quarterly or annual volumes, which are extremely heavy and unwieldy.

In order to ensure a productive and at the same time user-friendly scanning process, scanning systems should have short scanning and exposure times as well as user-friendly, motor-driven book cradle and pressure systems that enable ergonomic work.