Category Archives: Glossary

Sustainability

Sustainability is a principle of action in which economic, ecological and social action are in the foreground.

With this in mind, we at MICROBOX act sustainably and considerately and consciously say “YES” to Germany as a business location. We develop and produce on site in Bad Nauheim and purchase 90% of our materials from regional suppliers. This guarantees the quality and longevity of our products, which also have extremely low energy consumption. If possible, we also offer the revision of old scanning systems to the latest status as an alternative to buying a new one − an investment that pays off for our environment and our customers.

The components of the book2net scanning systems are connected to one another with screws. These can be easily removed during recycling and all components recycled separately. The steel housings are also fed directly back into the material cycle. In this process we only work with certified companies.

It is our aim to create attractive offers for our customers, which, however, are never at the expense of the environment or social and labor law requirements.

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Environmental protection

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Miniature book (book formats)

A miniature book (mini book, micro book) is a very small book whose features and typography are adapted to its small format, but which must also remain legible. The standards for what can be called a miniature rather than just a small book have changed over time. Nowadays, collectors in particular only consider a book to be a miniature if its size is no more than 100 × 100 mm or 3 to 4 inches or less.

Miniature books are as old as the history of writing and books. After the invention of printing technology, book printers began to test the limits of what was feasible. Around 200 miniature books were printed as early as the 16th century. In the 19th century, technological innovations allowed the creation of smaller fonts and spawned a new wave of miniature books.

There are highly valuable miniature books, decorated with gilt edging, bound in the finest leather and lavishly illustrated, but they are also available as commercial mass-produced goods. In the Victorian era, miniature etiquette books were very popular with women because they were easy to carry with you. One of the world’s most famous miniature books is Abraham Lincoln’s “Proclamation of Emancipation” from 1863. The first edition of the text was printed as a miniature book and it is estimated that one million copies were distributed to Union troops during the American War of Independence.

The most popular types of miniature books across the ages include Bibles, encyclopedias, dictionaries, short stories, verses, travel guides, almanacs, children’s stories, editions of world literature, and erotica.

Today there are also publishers who specialize in the publication and artistic design of miniature books. The modern production of miniature books is aimed at collectors who organize themselves in national and international associations and societies and who cultivate the miniature book as part of the book culture.

The digitization of miniature books poses special challenges. In order to digitize miniature books optimally, a high-end scanning technology with the best resolution, high depth of field and professional, gentle book cradle with V-pressure is required, since this type of book can usually only be opened with a very small angle.

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Book formats

The book format indicates how many sheets a book [...]

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Book cradle

The book cradle is a device that facilitates the [...]

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DIN formats (paper formats)

The standardized values for paper sizes known today as [...]

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VIS spectroscopy

VIS spectroscopy (also VIS spectrometry) is a variant of spectroscopy in which the reflection or absorption of light in the visible spectral range (VIS for short) in the wavelength range from approx. 400 to 780 nanometers is measured on the surface of an object. It is used for qualitative and quantitative analyses, among others in forensics and art technology.

Particularly in art technological investigations, this is often done in combination as UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. This allows the identification of pigments (mostly inorganic) and dyes (organic) independent of their carrier material (paintings, graphics, murals, furniture, textiles, etc.).

The method uses the selective interaction of electromagnetic radiation from the visible light and its adjacent wavelength ranges with the materials to be examined; part of the irradiated light is absorbed, part is reflected. This results in a specific spectrum for each material, an optical fingerprint, so to speak. This can be compared with reference materials and thus lead to an identification of the colorant.

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Multispectral imaging

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NIR spectroscopy

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Material analysis

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NIR spectroscopy

NIR spectroscopy (also near infrared spectroscopy or NIRS) is a physical analysis technique based on spectroscopy in the short-wave infrared light range. It is primarily equivalent to infrared spectroscopy used in the mid- and far-infrared range (MIR and FIR), but allows the use of other materials and radiation sources and provides easier access and other forms of analysis.

Near infrared or near infrared (NIR) is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum that follows the longer wavelength direction of visible light (VIS) in the range of approximately 780 to 2,500 nm.

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Multispectral imaging

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VIS spectroscopy

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Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy refers to a group of physical methods [...]

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Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy refers to a group of physical methods which decompose radiation according to certain properties such as wavelength, energy, mass, etc. The intensity distribution that can be read is called a spectrum. The quantitative measurement of these spectra is done by means of a spectrometer and, the graphical representation as spectrograms.

Spectroscopy is one of the non-invasive, non-destructive scientific examination methods used in art technology, particularly in the field of damage analysis or forgery detection.

Numerous materials used in works of art, such as inks, pigments, etc., can be identified on the basis of their interactions with electromagnetic radiation. These interactions can be detected and assigned to specific materials; thus, the spectrum becomes material-specific, a quasi-optical fingerprint. Storing such reference spectra in reference databases supports the work of scientists in their research.

For art technological analyses, visible (Vis=visible) light, radiation in the infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) range, and X-rays in particular are used.

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Multispectral imaging

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VIS spectroscopy

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NIR spectroscopy

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Spectral colors

Spectral colors describe the color impression of the human color perception that light of a certain wavelength produces. They are created when white light is refracted through a prism. This causes the light to split into the seven spectral colors visible to the human eye, i.e. into monochromatic light of a specific wavelength that cannot be further subdivided. If these spectral colors are combined again, white light is produced once more.

In nature, this phenomenon is best observed using the example of a rainbow. Sunlight is refracted by raindrops as if through a prism, causing the spectral colors to appear in the form of a rainbow in the sky.

The spectrum of light visible to humans lies between the long-wave end of ultraviolet light (360 to 380 nm) and the short-wave beginning of infrared light (780 to 820 nm). The perceived hue changes smoothly from violet to blue to green to yellow to red.

The seven spectral colors are violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red and indigo. They can be assigned to the following wave ranges:

  • Violet: 380 to 430 nm
  • Blue: 430 to 490 nm
  • Green: 490 to 570 nm
  • Yellow: 570 to 600 nm
  • Orange: 600 to 640 nm
  • Red: 640 to 780 nm

The color indigo is located in a middle range between the blue and the green wavelength range.

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Multispectral imaging

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VIS spectroscopy

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NIR spectroscopy

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Spectroscopy

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Material analysis

Technical analyses of materials are used in libraries, archives and museums, especially when questions of origin (provenance), authorship, creation process or authenticity of manuscripts, documents, drawings, paintings etc. need to be clarified.

Non-invasive analyses include imaging techniques and spectroscopy.

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Multispectral imaging

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Underdrawing

In art history, especially painting research, underdrawing describes [...]

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Watermark

A watermark is an identifying image or pattern [...]

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False colors

Imaging techniques such as multispectral photography make it possible to convert the spectral composition of image elements on the “input side” into a different color space and thus output them as a “false color” (or false color); i.e., colors that deviate from the natural color impression are deliberately used.

An unintentional false color display can occur as a color cast, for example, if the white balance has failed.

False color imaging is based on the principle that the human eye perceives only a few hundred brightness levels of a color tone, but can distinguish about a million color shades. Therefore, a false color image uses a color scale instead of a gray scale. The color channels of the original image are assigned to other colors – for example, red to blue and blue to green. This allows individual details of the captured originals to be seen more clearly, provided that the color gradient is uniform to the eye.

In the field of art technological analysis, false color images are used to make fine nuances of a color tone or a gray level in a work of art clearly distinguishable.

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Multispectral imaging

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Color spectrum

Color spectrum see Light spectrum

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RGB color space

A color model is a method of generating many colors from [...]

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ECI-RGB color space

The ECI-RGB V2 color space is one of the standardized RGB [...]

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Imaging techniques

In the field of art technology, imaging techniques belong to the non-invasive analysis procedures, i.e. they enable a non-destructive examination of artworks in contrast to analysis procedures in which material samples have to be removed.

These imaging methods make use of radiation of different wavelengths (from X-rays to the NIR range) and their very specific penetration and interaction with the materials of a work of art. This makes it possible to visualize material structures or differences that are invisible to the human eye.

Standard techniques include special photographic techniques such as sided light or multispectral photography. Other classic techniques, especially in the field of painting examination, include radiography, infrared reflectography  (IRR), and macro X-ray fluorescence scanning (RFA imaging), which combines imaging and material analysis.

Spectroscopy is another non-destructive analysis method.

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Multispectral imaging

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Spectroscopy

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VIS spectroscopy

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NIR spectroscopy

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Ambient light

Ambient light has a significant impact on the quality of scan results.

When installing scanning systems, the calibration or color profiling of the system is done in accordance with the existing ambient light. In order to guarantee a constant scan quality, the ambient light should not be subject to strong fluctuations.

Therefore, when placing the scan systems, make sure that they are located in a room that offers constant illumination and is not subject to strong light fluctuations or direct incidence of sunlight. Placement near a window or under ceiling lighting should be avoided if possible, as this can lead to disturbing reflections.

In addition, a slightly gray-tinted room color as well as a reflection-free housing, as offered by the new scanners of the book2net Black Line, can help to ensure the scanning quality.

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White balance

The white balance adjusts the scanner’s camera to [...]

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Color profile

Every imaging device, whether a digital camera, scanner, [...]

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