Category Archives: Glossary

Line sensor

Line sensors are light or radiation sensitive detectors (mostly semiconductor detectors), which consists of one or sometimes several rows of pixels (lines) to capture information. The counterpart to the line sensor is the area sensor, which has a rectangular arrangement (matrix) of pixels.

Line sensors are based on the original development for data storage from 1969 and have not changed significantly to this day. The light-sensitive sensors are very suitable for scanning documents in order to capture an image. The detector runs close to the original, scans the document line by line and combines the information from the individual scan lines to form an overall image. Sometimes only one line is used; sometimes a separate line is used for each color channel (red, green, blue).
This technology is still employed today in scanners, fax machines and copiers because it is very cheap and available in large quantities.

A major disadvantage of using this type of sensor in scanners is that the image capturing takes a comparatively long time due to the sequential scanning and that mechanical wear always takes place due to the movement of the components. This can lead to premature wear, especially with production scanners that have to digitize large quantities of documents in continuous operation.

In addition, the depth of field of line sensors is very small and covers only a few millimeters. Particularly in the case of books with a deep book fold or wavy pages that are not completely flat, this leads to blurring or even loss of information in the digitized material.

At book2net, we therefore only use image area sensors in our scanning systems.

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Bayer Matrix (Bayer Sensor)

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Image sensor / area sensor

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Image sensor / CMOS versus CCD

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Depth of field

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Image sensor / area sensor

In contrast to line sensors, image area sensors have a matrix with pixels, i.e. an x- and a y-axis. The area sensor offers a high dynamic range and a fill factor of almost 100%. These sensors are very suitable for high-resolution camera systems in industry and science, where a special focus is placed on maintenance-free and wear-free systems. In addition, due to their high quality, surface sensors are used in the areas of document digitization and capture, measurements and inspections, medicine and research as well as for 3D vision.

A considerable advantage of area sensors compared to line sensors is that the image sensor area can be exposed simultaneously and without delay, without the need to add up individual segments. The overall result is output immediately. This enables very quick and gentle digitization, as the templates are only exposed to external environmental influences, such as incidence of light, for a short time. The scanning time for high-quality area sensors is approx. 0.3 seconds, which leads to enormous productivity, especially for large digitization projects.

At book2net, we only use area sensors for all of our scanning systems, as they combine all the advantages for our customers and the areas of application required: high depth of field, short scanning and processing times, high image quality and the option of live video preview. The latter is particularly helpful when positioning the originals on the scanning surface. With the help of the preview image and our Live Control Professional software module, users receive a finished result proposal before the scan is actually triggered. If needed, frames can be set within the live image, the quality can be checked and the orientation selected. This avoids incorrect scans and further optimizes productivity.

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Image sensor / CMOS versus CCD

There are two types of image sensors for industrial cameras on the market: CCD and CMOS sensors. Both, [...]

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Line sensor

Line sensors are light or radiation sensitive detectors (mostly semiconductor detectors), which consists of one or sometimes several [...]

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Depth of field

The depth of field indicates the range in which images are displayed sharply when photographing or scanning. For [...]

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Planetary scanner

As well as the term planetary scanner, the terms orbital scanner or book scanner are used to describe [...]

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OCR

OCR (Optical Character Recognition) is a character recognition for documents. Using software or a software module, the text from scanned documents is recognized and saved together with the image file. This makes it possible to create searchable documents. The output is directly in PDF, Word or optionally in other file formats.

The recognition process can be triggered after the actual scanning process (post-processing) or can be performed directly from the scanning application (on-the-fly) using our “Easy Scan Professional OCR” software module. When using OCR, it is generally advisable to make the scans bitonal, i.e. in black and white, in order to achieve a higher success rate.

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TWAIN

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Operating systems – Windows

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Depth of field

The depth of field indicates the range in which images are displayed sharply when photographing or scanning. For example, if you work with a shallow depth of field and focus on an object that is, say, 30 cm away from the lens, everything closer (15 cm) or farther away (35 cm) will appear out of focus.

When digitizing, however, one works mainly with flat, two-dimensional originals, for which a shallow depth of field is supposedly required. However, if you want to digitize three-dimensional objects, such as books with a deep book fold or seal letters with a structure, it quickly becomes clear why a high depth of field is necessary: here, all areas should be displayed sharply and legibly so that no information is lost.

The further away the lens is from an object, the greater the depth of field. In macro photography, where the distance between the optics and the subject can be less than 5 cm, it is self-explanatory that the depth of field decreases accordingly or is barely present.

Thanks to the special optics and the area sensor used, our systems are able to provide a depth of field of 8-15 cm, depending on the format.

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Focus level

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Margin area

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Book fold optimization

Some books, especially books with a thick spine, [...]

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Lens

Every camera needs a lens to project the [...]

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Image sensor / CMOS versus CCD

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Focus

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Autofocus

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Motorized focus

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Bayer Matrix (Bayer Sensor)

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Margin area

When digitizing with planetary scanners, the margin area of the documents is of crucial importance.

Experience has shown that the sharpness of scans decreases towards the edge. Special lenses are therefore needed to ensure that documents and originals are uniformly sharp across the entire imaging area, i.e. not only in the center but also in the critical edge areas.In addition, distortions or color fringes sometimes occur in the peripheral areas.

To prevent this, all our systems are equipped with apochromatic corrected industrial optics designed specifically for digitization.

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Lens

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Apochromat / apochromatic

When light passes through an optical system (lenses made of glass), [...]

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Focus

In physics, the focus describes the point in an optical system [...]

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Focus level

By using area sensors in our systems, we reproduce a high [...]

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Planetary scanner

As well as the term planetary scanner, the terms orbital scanner [...]

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Lens

Every camera needs a lens to project the object or the image to be captured onto the sensor. Lenses come in a variety of designs for a wide range of applications: Macro, back-magnification, telephoto, wide-angle, zoom or tilt-shift lens. Basically, lenses can be adjusted in two ways: focal length and aperture. The focal length determines how close or how far away objects must be to be in focus. This is also referred to as focusing. The aperture controls how much light falls through the optics onto the sensor. If the aperture is wide open, a lot of light falls on the sensor and the depth of field is basically shallow. If you close the aperture, the image becomes darker, but the depth of field increases.

In our systems we use a special lens, which was designed for the digitization of documents and books. Here we pay a lot of attention to a distortion-free image in order to avoid deformations of the documents. This ensures that the documents are also scanned and displayed at right angles and true to scale. In addition, the lens we use differs from other commercially available lenses in that it is apochromatic corrected and has extremely high sharpness even in the peripheral areas. This is because unlike in photography, when digitizing, the important image information is not only in the center of the image, but also, or especially, in the peripheral areas.

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Focus

In physics, the focus describes the point in an optical system [...]

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Depth of field

The depth of field indicates the range in which images are [...]

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Margin area

When digitizing with reflected light scanners, the margin area of the [...]

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Autofocus

Autofocus is a common feature when taking photos with consumer cameras [...]

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Motorized focus

Our systems work with a fixed focal length as standard. This [...]

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Image sensor / CMOS versus CCD

There are two types of image sensors for industrial cameras on [...]

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Bayer Matrix (Bayer Sensor)

The Bayer matrix is the spatial arrangement of the red, green [...]

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Prequalification

Prequalification enables potential suppliers (bidders) to demonstrate in advance their expertise and capability as defined in the procurement and contracting regulations, irrespective of a specific invitation to tender. Prequalification saves companies the effort of having to submit individual certificates (e.g. declarations of turnover, entries in the professional and commercial registers or extracts from criminal records) that are regularly required in award procedures. Instead, public contracting authorities can recognize the collective certificates (prequalification) deposited by prequalification bodies instead of the individual certificates.

Advantages for contracting authorities:

The certificates of suitability are always up to date at the prequalification bodies. Suitability tests of companies for award procedures are easier and faster to perform.

The use of a centralized service increases legal certainty compared to the provision of a wide range of individual certificates.

With the certificate number 06 006 TZGL59 the Chamber of Industry and Commerce Wiesbaden certifies that the company MICROBOX GmbH, Hohe Straße 4-6, 61231 Bad Nauheim, is registered in the official register (www.amtliches-verzeichnis.ihk.de) as a suitable company for public contracts. As a prerequisite for registration, the company was prequalified by the Auftragsberatungsstelle Hessen e.V. We will be happy to provide you with the access code to the HPQR certificate upon request.

Newspaper format (paper formats)

A newspaper format describes the standardized dimensions of a newspaper that has not been opened, specified in width by height (in short: W × H). The size refers to the size of the paper side. The print area, however, can vary depending on the newspaper. The width of the columns, too, can vary. Common formats are e.g. B. 45 mm (one column), 90-95 mm (two columns) or 185 mm (four columns).

Newspaper formats vary considerably around the world, not only from country to country but also within a country. In Germany alone there were around 60 different paper formats for newspaper printing in the 1970s. DIN 16604, which was laid down in 1973, was intended to “facilitate cooperation between the advertising industry and newspaper publishers and printing companies when placing advertisements and lead to a uniform usage of language with regard to dimensions.”

In some countries, certain formats are also associated with certain types of newspapers. In Great Britain, for example, a distinction is made between “tabloid” and “broadsheet”, which is also to be assessed as a reference to the quality of the newspaper content, since the tabloid press prefers the tabloid format.

In Germany, on the other hand, the most common formats differ according to their regional origin, such as the Berlin format (315 x 470 mm), the Rhenish format (350 × 510 mm) and the Nordic format (400 × 570 mm).

Due to the high format variability and the different nature of the templates, the digitization of newspapers poses great challenges for scanning systems.

Newspapers can be available as individual editions, but depending on the frequency of publication they are often bound in thick monthly, quarterly or annual volumes, which are extremely heavy and unwieldy.

In order to ensure a productive and at the same time user-friendly scanning process, scanning systems should have short scanning and exposure times as well as user-friendly, motor-driven book cradle and pressure systems that enable ergonomic work.

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Book formats

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Book cradle

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DIN formats (paper formats)

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Mechanical book cradle 180°

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Special formats (paper formats)

Under the unofficial name A4+ (A4 plus), there is an oversize format based on the DIN A4 format that is used in inkjet and laser printers. It is offered to end customers specifically by printer manufacturers and paper suppliers. Due to the lack of standardization of this oversize format, the formats differ somewhat. Some A4-based formats have a uniform bleed of three millimeters per side (216 × 303 mm) and sometimes corresponding tear-off edges. Some (U.S.) suppliers also specify A4+ as 9½ × 13 in (inch/inch) (241 × 330 mm), which is virtually the same as the untrimmed A4U (240 × 330 mm) sheet format from ISO 5457 for technical drawings.

In photographic and commercial printing, the likewise non-standardized oversize format A3+ (A3 plus), also known as Super A3 or Super B, exists accordingly. The dimensions are usually selected so that an A3 page can be printed borderless on a paper manufacturer’s printer.

For the class of 17″ printers (usually referred to as A2 printers), there is an oversize format A2+ (432 × 648 mm), with the 2:3 aspect ratio common for photos. This format is aimed at users who want to use the full width or flatness of their printer. In the 36″ printer class, an oversize format known as E/A0 or A0 big (917 × 1189 mm) is sometimes used, which combines the height of a DIN A0 sheet with a width of approximately 36.1 inches.

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DIN formats (paper formats)

The standardized values for paper sizes known today as DIN formats [...]

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Folio format (book formats)

The term folio derives from the Latin word "folium" (leaf) and [...]

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Newspaper format (paper formats)

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UV light

UV light, also known as ultraviolet radiation or UV radiation, cannot be seen by humans, only felt. Probably the best known natural source of UV light is the sun. Artificially, UV radiation can be generated with the help of mercury vapor lamps and special light sources. UV light is divided into the three categories UV-A, UV-B and UV-C according to its wavelength. The short-wave UV-C light is largely absorbed by the ozone layer and thus does not reach our skin. The UV-B light makes it a little further, but is also rendered harmless by the cloud layers to 90%. UV-A light, on the other hand, is responsible for sunburn, eye damage, skin cancer and far more biological damage.

UV radiation can cause irreparable damage to sensitive works of art, especially works made of paper, such as prints, manuscripts or books. Depending on the duration and intensity of light, exposure starts biochemical processes that accelerate the organic aging process and lead to structural changes in paper, ink and paint. That is why we use only adjustable LED light units in our scanning systems for the most gentle illumination of the originals.

On the other hand, UV light (UV fluorescence) is used in the field of art science as an examination method, e.g. to make surface phenomena or faded inks on works of art, which cannot be perceived by the naked eye, visible by selective excitation with light of certain wavelengths. In this context, we use UV light exclusively in our multispectral system.

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Homogeneous light

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Continuous light

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Photosensitivity

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LED

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